Lee, P. T., Bird, S., Zou, J., & Martin, S. A. M. (2017). Phylogeny and expression analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-P (SAP) like genes reveal two distinct groups in fish. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 65, 42–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2017.03.037
Permanent Research Commons link: http://hdl.handle.net/10289/11061
The acute phase response (APR) is an early innate immune function that is initiated by inflammatory signals, leading to the release of acute phase proteins to the bloodstream to re-establish homeostasis following microbial infection. In this study we analysed the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) whole-genome database and identified five C-reactive protein (CRP)/serum amyloid P component (SAP) like molecules namely CRP/SAP-1a, CRP/SAP-1b, CRP/SAP-1c, CRP/SAP-2 and CRP/SAP-3. These CRP/SAP genes formed two distinct sub-families, a universal group (group I) present in all vertebrates and a fish/amphibian specific group (group II). Salmon CRP/SAP-1a, CRP/SAP-1b and CRP/SAP-1c and CRP/SAP-2 belong to the group I family whilst salmon CRP/SAP-3 is a member of group II. Gene expression analysis showed that the salmon CRP/SAP-1a as well as serum amyloid A-5 (SAA-5), one of the major acute phase proteins, were significantly up-regulated by recombinant cytokines (rIL-1β and rIFNγ) in primary head kidney cells whilst the other four CRP/SAPs remained refractory. Furthermore, SAA-5 was produced as the main acute phase protein (APP) in Atlantic salmon challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida (aroA(-) strain) whilst salmon CRP/SAPs remained unaltered. Overall, these data illustrate the potential different functions of expanded salmon CRP/SAPs to their mammalian homologues.
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).