A comparative proteomics approach to studying skeletal muscle mitochondria from myostatin knockout mice
Puddick, J. (2006). A comparative proteomics approach to studying skeletal muscle mitochondria from myostatin knockout mice (Thesis, Master of Science (MSc)). The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10289/2254
Permanent Research Commons link: http://hdl.handle.net/10289/2254
Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle growth. When it is not present or non-functional double-muscling occurs, the primary characteristic of this phenotype being an increase in muscle mass. Another characteristic of double-muscling is an increased proportion of type IIB muscle fibres, which rely on glycolysis as their primary energy source, as opposed to type IIA and type I fibres which rely on oxidative phosphorylation. This switch in muscle metabolism directly impacts on the mitochondria, as mitochondria from glycolytic muscle fibres have been shown to have differences in metabolic activity. The increased proportion of glycolytic muscle fibres present in myostatin knockout animals provides a unique model to investigate alterations in muscle fibre type metabolism. The mouse model of myostatin knockout utilised during this study was generated by genetic deletion of exon three of the myostatin gene. Verification of this knockout was attempted by western blot analysis, but only the latency associated protein (LAP) was detected. Interestingly, the LAP was barely detectable in the knockout muscle suggesting deletion of exon three affects binding of anti-myostatin antibodies to the LAP, as that part of the gene is not deleted. A comparison of the basal mitochondrial stress levels was made, also by western blot analysis. The knockout mitochondria showed no change in levels of heat shock protein 60 or superoxide dismutase 2, indicating that they are not being subjected to any increased stress due to the myostatin knockout phenotype. A comparative proteomics approach was used to detect changes in the mitochondrial proteome of myostatin knockout gastrocnemius muscle to gain clues to how mitochondria from glycolytic muscle fibres differ from those present in oxidative fibres. This was undertaken using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), in-gel tryptic digests and peptide mass fingerprinting by mass spectrometry. A 2-DE gel protein loading of 220 g was shown to give the best protein spot resolution and the most crucial step in the loading process was found to be the laying of the immobilized pH gradient, which had to be performed very carefully to obtain a consistent loading pattern. This study resolved only around 160 protein spots out of the estimated 1,000 to 2,000 proteins present in the mitochondria. Modulation of six proteins was seen at a plt0.1 level, but were unable to be identified using the current methodology. More abundant mitochondrial proteins were able to be identified, but showed no significant modulation. Malate dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which were identified during this study, have been reported to have decreased activity in mitochondria from glycolytic muscle fibres. This study suggests that the change in activity observed by other researchers is due to inhibition of these enzymes in the glycolytic fibres or activation in the oxidative fibres.
The University of Waikato
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