Addiction Phenomenology In Substance Use And Non-Substance Use Disorders
McLachlan, A. D. (2008). Addiction Phenomenology In Substance Use And Non-Substance Use Disorders (Thesis, Master of Social Sciences (MSocSc)). The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10289/2314
Permanent Research Commons link: http://hdl.handle.net/10289/2314
There is growing research evidence and public concern over the burgeoning of disorders which share common features with substance addictions. In order to investigate the presence and role of addiction features in disorders outside of substance addictions, symptoms of addiction were explored within three addiction groups: alcohol dependence (AD), an established addiction (n = 24); pathological gambling (PG) a disorder with growing empirical support as an addiction (n = 20); and compulsive shopping (CS), a proposed 'novel' addiction(n = 20).Participants were recruited from either the general population, or from the Auckland Salvation Army Bridge residential alcohol and drug treatment programme; Salvation Army Oasis Gambling Service; Pacific Peoples Addiction Service Incorporated; or Te Kahui Hauora O Ngati Koata Trust. Participants completed a battery of self-report measures comprising a demographics questionnaire; Addictive Disorder Questionnaire (ADQ); anxiety and depression subscales of the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90R); Barratt Impulsivity Scale II-r; and substance specific adaptations of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS).Three general categories of addiction symptoms: physiological, salience and dyscontrol, were identified as broad aspects of addiction, common across all three groups. Measurable aspects of addiction, including impulsivity, obsessions, anxiety and depression were found to be endorsed similarly across the three addictions, irrespective of the severity of their addiction. Compulsions were found to be higher in the AD group. Higher anxiety was found to be correlated with higher addiction in the behavioural addictions (CS and PG), whereas depression and anxiety were associated with higher addiction severity in the AD group.The results provide support for broadening addiction diagnostic definitions, to be more encompassing of the psychological and physiological experiences of each symptom; and developing different diagnostic categories for non-substance addictions that reflect the severity of the addiction. Results also provide evidence for developmental phases of addiction, from an early 'hedonistic' impulsive phase, to a compulsive phase, in which increased dyscontrol, mood and anxiety, marks the severity of the addiction.
The University of Waikato
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