Kapa, M. M. & Clarkson, B. D. (2009). Biological flora of New Zealand 11. Eleochairs spacelata, kuta, paopao, bamboo spike sedge. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 47(1), 43-52.
Permanent Research Commons link: http://hdl.handle.net/10289/2748
Information relevant to the ecology and morphology of Eleocharis sphacelata (Cyperaceae) available through published and unpublished sources is assembled and reviewed. Eleocharis sphacelata is a freshwater wetland sedge found growing at the edge of lake margins, swamps, lagoons, and bogs within New Zealand, Australia, and Papua New Guinea. It is a perennial rhizomatous herb, with tall green cylindrical culms rising from submerged rhizomes generally buried under water in aerobic soils. A tendency to dominate the deepwater margins makes E. sphacelata crucial to the ecology of this habitat as a source of food, shelter, and protection for invertebrates, birds, and fish. Eleocharis sphacelata is commonly named giant spike-rush, kuta, or paopao. Māori have traditionally used the plant for clothing and warm coverings within whare (houses). Recent interest comes from its use in restoration plantings and constructed wetlands.
The Royal Society of New Zealand