Synthesis, microstructure and mechanical properties of bulk ultrafine grained Ti-47Al-2Cr (at%) alloy
Nadakuduru, V. N. (2009). Synthesis, microstructure and mechanical properties of bulk ultrafine grained Ti-47Al-2Cr (at%) alloy (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)). The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10289/4396
Permanent Research Commons link: http://hdl.handle.net/10289/4396
Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and powder compact forging of Ti/Al/Cr composite powders of composition Ti-47Al-2Cr (at%) have been carried out to synthesize bulk ultrafine grained Ti-47Al-2Cr alloy. The Ti/Al/Cr composite powders were produced using high energy mechanical milling of elemental Ti, Al, Cr powders in a retsch planetary mill. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the bulk consolidated alloy produced using different processing techniques has been investigated. The mechanical properties of the alloy were studied in tension and compression both at room and elevated temperatures especially to know the formability of the material. The bulk alloy samples produced by HIP for 2 hours at 1000 degrees C had porosity of approximately ~ 5%, indicating that the HIP time was not sufficient to close the pores. The microstructure mainly consisted of TiAl as the major phase and Ti(Al) and Ti3Al as minors, the unreacted Ti(Al) phase in the microstructure was mainly due to the initial powder condition, in which a small fraction of powder particles were rich in Ti. Tensile testing of the alloy samples was carried out at different temperatures. At room temperature the alloy was fairly brittle, without any plastic deformation, and had a fracture strength of ~ 100 MPa. At elevated temperatures the samples became ductile, as reflected by considerable amounts of tensile elongations at 800 degrees C and above. The maximum amount of elongation was found to be between 70 - 80% at 900 degrees C. The tensile yield strength at 800 degrees C was in the range of 84-90 MPa and decreased to 55-58 MPa with the testing temperature of the samples to 900 degrees C. In compression the alloy showed plastic yielding and yield strength of ~ 1.4 GPa at room temperature. Compression testing at 900 degrees C revealed that compressive deformations equivalent to a height reduction of 50% could be easily achieved without cracking. Direct powder compact forging using canned powder compacts of the Ti/Al/Cr composite powder was successfully used to produce bulk consolidated Ti-47Al-2Cr alloy samples. It has been observed that the density of the bulk consolidated alloy sample after forging varied from the centre to the periphery. XRD analysis showed that the forged samples, consisted of TiAl (as major phase) along with Ti(Al) and Ti3.3Al phases. Mechanical testing of the samples showed that the samples exhibited brittle type of fracture both in tension and compression at room temperature and the fracture strength of the samples was in the range of 115 - 130 MPa in tension and 1.38-1.4 GPa in compression without any yielding. When being tested at 900 degrees C, the samples became very ductile showing yield strength in the range of 70-90 MPa and elongation to fracture between 80-165% in tension, and a yield strength of ~ 65 MPa and 50% deformation in compression was easily achievable. Nearly fully dense Ti-47-2Cr alloy samples with density of ~98% were produced by using HIP at 1000 degrees C for a duration of 3 hours. TEM observations revealed equiaxed grains with grain sizes in the range of 200-500 nm. The tensile testing of the alloy samples at different temperatures revealed that the brittle to ductile transition temperature of the alloy was in the range of 700 and 750 degrees C, similar to that reported from literatures. The alloy showed significantly higher strengths both at room and at elevated temperatures, due to the low level of porosity in the sample. Elongation of 95 - 117% at 750 degrees C and 70-100% at 800 degrees C was observed. The ultrafine grained Ti-47Al-2Cr alloy produced using a combination of mechanical milling and HIP/powder compact forging has demonstrated good formability at elevated temperatures leaving a large space for secondary processing to improve the quality of the material.
The University of Waikato
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