Brown, G. & Brabyn, L. (2012). An analysis of the relationships between multiple values and physical landscapes at a regional scale using public participation GIS and landscape character classification. Landscape and Urban Planning, available online 30 June 2012.
Permanent Research Commons link: http://hdl.handle.net/10289/6489
Human attribution of multiple values to landscapes is not well understood owing to the variability and complexity of both the landscape concept and the human valuation process. In this study, we extend psychophysical analysis of landscapes by examining the relationships between multiple landscape values and physical landscape character. Previous landscape research has tended to focus on the relationship between a single value such as landscape aesthetics and a single physical landscape component, such as vegetation or water. We spatially intersected eight landscape values collected through a regional public participation GIS (PPGIS) process with landscape components and classes from the New Zealand Land Classification (NZLC) system. We used chi-square residual analysis and correspondence analysis to identify significant spatial associations. The results indicate that the general public associate particular values with specific landscape components at a regional scale. Greater than expected landscape values were associated with urban areas, water features, indigenous landcover, and mountains. Fewer than expected landscape values were associated with flatter, agricultural landscapes. We discuss the benefits and limitations of these methods for landscape assessment in New Zealand, and in the absence of PPGIS data to directly measure landscape values, whether landscape components should be used to interpolate values for landscape assessment. We urge replication of the method in other regions to increase the external validity of the landscape value–physical landscape associations described herein.