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dc.contributor.advisorTemara, Pou
dc.contributor.authorGabel, Robert Rutene Whakaangi
dc.date.accessioned2012-10-04T01:46:57Z
dc.date.available2012-10-04T01:46:57Z
dc.date.issued2012
dc.identifier.citationGabel, R. R. W. (2012). Upoko Tapu, Upoko Whakakapowai, Upoko Hokona (Thesis, Master of Arts (MA)). University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10289/6677en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10289/6677
dc.description.abstractNgāpuhi, a confederation of Māori iwi (tribes) from Te Tai Tokerau, the northern region of Aotearoa, is the largest iwi of New Zealand. They were one of the first iwi to come into contact with Europeans in the early 19th century. During this period of contact, particularly between the years 1820 – 1831, Ngāpuhi had a devastating impact on the history of Māori, as they amassed a fighting force of some two thousand warriors and acquired the use of European firearms. Ngāpuhi then circumnavigated the North Island, waging war on coastal and inland tribes with the purpose of avenging past defeats and losses suffered at the hands of their traditional enemies. This objective was ultimately achieved, but this period of war also saw the emergence of another key event in Māori history, the beginning of the trade in what we now call toi moko, which were used to trade with Europeans for muskets. Given that Māori have always regarded the head as the most tapu part of the human anatomy, this thesis investigates and explores what effect or influence tikanga and tapu had on this trade. It further studies some of the rationales which allowed Ngāpuhi to override that sacred tradition and move into the trade of toi moko. This thesis argues that Ngāpuhi did not desecrate tapu in the selling and trading of toi moko but took advantage of another long-standing tradition that the tapu of the vanquished ceased to exist upon his death. Lastly, it argues that the trade in toi moko was necessary to ensure the safety and continuity of the Ngāpuhi iwi.
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isomi_NZ
dc.publisherUniversity of Waikato
dc.rightsAll items in Research Commons are provided for private study and research purposes and are protected by copyright with all rights reserved unless otherwise indicated.
dc.subjectNgāpuhi
dc.subjectTapu
dc.subjectTapu o te Upoko
dc.subjectTapu Pūihoiho
dc.subjectTapu Whakaūhia
dc.subjectTikanga Iho Matua
dc.subjectToi Moko
dc.subjectTe Rehu o te Tapu
dc.titleUpoko Tapu, Upoko Whakakapowai, Upoko Hokonaen
dc.typeThesis
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Waikato
thesis.degree.levelMasters
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Arts (MA)
dc.date.updated2012-03-16T03:52:24Z
pubs.place-of-publicationHamilton, New Zealanden_NZ


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