Liesaputra, V. & Witten, Ian H. (2007). Computer graphics techniques for modeling page turning. (Working paper 08/2007). Hamilton, New Zealand: University of Waikato, Department of Computer Science.
Permanent Research Commons link: http://hdl.handle.net/10289/760
Turning the page is a mechanical part of the cognitive act of reading that we do literally unthinkingly. Interest in realistic book models for digital libraries and other online documents is growing. Yet actually producing a computer graphics implementation for modeling page turning is a challenging undertaking. There are many possible foundations: two-dimensional models that use reflection and rotation; geometrical models using cylinders or cones; mass-spring models that simulate the mechanical properties of paper at varying degrees of fidelity; finite-element models that directly compute the actual forces within a piece of paper. Even the simplest methods are not trivial, and the more sophisticated ones involve detailed physical and mathematical models. The variety, intricacy and complexity of possible ways of simulating this fundamental act of reading is virtually unknown. This paper surveys computer graphics models for page turning. It combines a tutorial introduction that covers the range of possibilities and complexities with a mathematical synopsis of each model in sufficient detail to serve as a basis for implementation. Illustrations are included that are generated by our implementations of each model. The techniques presented include geometric methods (both two- and three-dimensional), mass-spring models with varying degrees of accuracy and complexity, and finite-element models. We include a detailed comparison of experimentally-determined computation time and subjective visual fidelity for all methods discussed. The simpler techniques support convincing real-time implementations on ordinary workstations.
University of Waikato, Department of Computer Science