McDonald-Wharry, J., Manley-Harris, M. & Pickering, K. (2013). Carbonisation of biomass-derived chars and the thermal reduction of a graphene oxide sample studied using Raman spectroscopy. Carbon, 59, 383-405.
Permanent Research Commons link: http://hdl.handle.net/10289/7603
Chars and carbonised chars were produced from three different oxygen-rich precursors (Pinus radiata wood, Phormium tenax leaf fibres, and sucrose crystals). These non-graphitisable carbons were analysed with Raman spectroscopy in order to study the nanostructural development which occurs with increasingly severe heat treatments up to approximately 1000 °C. The thermal reduction of a graphene oxide sample was similarly studied, as this is considered to involve the development of nanometre-scale graphene-like domains within a different oxygen-rich precursor. Increasing the heat treatment temperatures used in the charring and carbonisation processes, led to significant changes in a number of parameters measured in the Raman spectra. Correlations based on these parameter changes could have future applications in evaluating various char samples and estimating the heat treatment temperatures employed during their manufacture. After production heat treatment temperatures exceeded 700 °C, the Raman spectra of the carbonised chars appeared to be largely precursor independent. The spectra of these carbonised chars were similar to the spectra obtained from thermally-reduced graphene oxides, especially when compared to a wide range of other carbonaceous materials analysed using this particular methodology. Partial reduction of a graphene oxide sample due to reasonably mild laser exposures during Raman analysis was also observed.
This is the authors accepted manuscript version of an article published in the journal: Carbon. Copyright 2013 Elsevier Ltd.