Churchman, G. J., & Lowe, D. J. (2014). Clay minerals in South Australian Holocene basaltic volcanogenic soils and implications for halloysite genesis and structure. In Proceedings of the 23rd Biennial Australian Clay Minerals Society Conference (pp. 3–6). Australia: Australian Clay Minerals Society.
Permanent Research Commons link: http://hdl.handle.net/10289/8680
The clay mineralogical composition was determined of 8 soils formed from pyroclastic ejecta (tephra) from adjacent 5000-year old basaltic volcanoes at Mounts Gambier and Schank in South Australia. Both nanocrystalline (short-range order) and crystalline aluminosilicates and also Fe oxides and hydroxides were identified in the soils. Allophane generally occurred to a greater extent in the 4 soils derived from glass-rich Mt Schank tephra than in most of those from glass-poor Mt Gambier tephra. Ferrihydrite occurred along with allophane. Smectite, kaolinite, illite, and an interstratified kaolinite-smectite comprised the crystalline minerals in these soils. There was no evidence for halloysite. Unlike in New Zealand, decreased leaching resulted in Si-rich allophane, rather than halloysite, forming in place of the Al-rich form of the same mineral. This result may indicate that ferrous iron is an essential impurity in halloysite. It was likely absent from these soils because their high pH due to underlying calcareous rocks precludes its occurrence. The probable requirement of Fe(II) as an essential component of halloysites may have been overlooked because of oxidation consequent upon the inevitable drying of samples prior to analyses.
Australian Clay Minerals Society
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