Accepted version, 1.315Mb
Hartland, A., Anderson, M. S., & Hamilton, D. P. (2015). Phosphorus and arsenic distributions in a seasonally-stratified, iron- and manganese-rich lake: microbiological and geochemical controls. Environmental Chemistry, peer reviewed and accepted for publication.
Permanent Research Commons link: http://hdl.handle.net/10289/9268
Seasonal stratification in temperate lakes greater than a few metres deep provides conditions amenable to pronounced vertical zonation of redox chemistry. Such changes are particularly evident in eutrophic systems where high phytoplankton biomass often leads to seasonally-established anoxic hypolimnia and profound changes in geochemical conditions. In this study, we investigated the behaviour of trace elements in the water column of a seasonally-stratified, eutrophic lake. Two consecutive years of data from Lake Ngapouri, North Island, New Zealand, demonstrate the occurrence of highly correlated profiles of phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), all of which increased in concentration by 1-2 orders of magnitude within the anoxic hypolimnion. Stoichiometric and mass-balance considerations demonstrate that increases in alkalinity in hypolimnetic waters were consistent with observed changes in sulfate, Fe and Mn concentrations with depth, corresponding to dissimilatory reduction of sulfate, Fe(III) and Mn(IV) hydroxides. Thermodynamic constraints on Fe, Mn and Al solubility indicate that amorphous Fe(III), Mn(IV) hydroxides most probably controlled Fe and Mn in the surface mixed layer (~0 to 8 m) while Al(III) hydroxides were supersaturated throughout the entire system. Surface complexation modelling indicated that iron hydroxides (HFO) potentially dominated As speciation in the lake. It is likely that other colloidal phases such as allophanic clays also limited HPO42- activity, reducing competition for HAsO42- adsorption to iron hydroxides. This research highlights the coupling of P, As, Fe and Mn in Lake Ngapouri, and the apparent role of multiple colloidal phases in affecting P and As activity within overarching microbiological and geochemical processes.
This is an author’s accepted version of an article has been peer reviewed and accepted for publication.