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dc.contributor.authorWood, Susanna A.en_NZ
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Francine M. J.en_NZ
dc.contributor.authorHeath, Mark W.en_NZ
dc.contributor.authorPalfroy, Thomasen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorGaw, Sallyen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorYoung, Roger G.en_NZ
dc.contributor.authorRyan, Ken G.en_NZ
dc.coverage.spatialSwitzerlanden_NZ
dc.date.accessioned2016-08-23T00:58:24Z
dc.date.available2012-10en_NZ
dc.date.available2016-08-23T00:58:24Z
dc.date.issued2012-10en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationWood, S. A., Smith, F. M. J., Heath, M. W., Palfroy, T., Gaw, S., Young, R. G., & Ryan, K. G. (2012). Within-mat variability in anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a production among benthic Phormidium (cyanobacteria) strains. Toxins, 4(10), 900–912. http://doi.org/10.3390/toxins4100900en
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10289/10605
dc.description.abstractBenthic Phormidium mats can contain high concentrations of the neurotoxins anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a. However, little is known about the co-occurrence of anatoxin-producing and non-anatoxin-producing strains within mats. There is also no data on variation in anatoxin content among toxic genotypes isolated from the same mat. In this study, 30 Phormidium strains were isolated from 1 cm(2) sections of Phormidium-dominated mats collected from three different sites. Strains were grown to stationary phase and their anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a and dihydrohomoanatoxin-a concentrations determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Each strain was characterized using morphological and molecular (16S rRNA gene sequences) techniques. Eighteen strains produced anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a or homoanatoxin-a. Strains isolated from each mat either all produced toxins, or were a mixture of anatoxin and non-anatoxin-producing genotypes. Based on morphology these genotypes could not be separated. The 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed a difference of at least 17 nucleotides among anatoxin and non-anatoxin-producing strains and these formed two separate sub-clades during phylogenetic analysis. The total anatoxin concentration among toxic strains varied from 2.21 to 211.88 mg kg(-1) (freeze dried weight), representing a 100 fold variation in toxin content. These data indicate that both the relative abundance of anatoxin and non-anatoxin-producing genotypes, and variations in anatoxin producing capability, can influence the overall toxin concentration of benthic Phormidium mat samples.en_NZ
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoenen_NZ
dc.publisherMDPIen_NZ
dc.rightsThis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
dc.subject16S rRNA gene sequenceen_NZ
dc.subjectPhormidiumen_NZ
dc.subjectanaF geneen_NZ
dc.subjectanatoxin-aen_NZ
dc.subjectbenthic matsen_NZ
dc.subjectcyanobacteriaen_NZ
dc.subjecthomoanatoxin-aen_NZ
dc.subjectBacterial Toxinsen_NZ
dc.subjectBicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclicen_NZ
dc.subjectCyanobacteriaen_NZ
dc.subjectGas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometryen_NZ
dc.subjectGenes, Bacterialen_NZ
dc.subjectNeurotoxinsen_NZ
dc.subjectPhylogenyen_NZ
dc.subjectRNA, Ribosomal, 16Sen_NZ
dc.subjectRiversen_NZ
dc.subjectSequence Analysis, RNAen_NZ
dc.subjectTropanesen_NZ
dc.titleWithin-mat variability in anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a production among benthic Phormidium (cyanobacteria) strains.en_NZ
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/toxins4100900en_NZ
dc.relation.isPartOfToxinsen_NZ
pubs.begin-page900
pubs.elements-id84336
pubs.end-page912
pubs.issue10en_NZ
pubs.volume4en_NZ
dc.identifier.eissn2072-6651en_NZ


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