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dc.contributor.authorPuddick, Jonathanen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorWood, Susanna A.en_NZ
dc.contributor.authorHawes, Ianen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorHamilton, David P.en_NZ
dc.date.accessioned2016-11-16T01:09:55Z
dc.date.available2016en_NZ
dc.date.available2016-11-16T01:09:55Z
dc.date.issued2016en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationPuddick, J., Wood, S. A., Hawes, I., & Hamilton, D. P. (2016). Fine-scale cryogenic sampling of planktonic microbial communities: Application to toxic cyanobacterial blooms. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 14(9), 600–609. http://doi.org/10.1002/lom3.10115en
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10289/10724
dc.description.abstractA lack of fine-scale methods for sampling planktonic microbial populations hinders advancement in understanding the responses of these communities to environmental conditions. Current methods provide resolution at scales of centimeters to meters, but not at the millimeter-scale required to understand highly stratified communities. To address this we developed two cryogenic sampling tools to collect spatially-precise samples from aquatic environments while simultaneously preserving the microbial communities. The application of these samplers was examined over a 5.5 h period using a cyanobacterial scum (Microcystis) formed in experimental mesocosms. A cryogenic “surface snatcher” collected a discrete layer (ca. 1 mm) of surface water. Compared to conventional surface sampling methods, the surface snatcher samples contained up to 22-times more microcystin, indicating that less underlying water was incorporated into the sample. A cryogenic “cold finger” sampler was used to collect vertical profiles of the upper 40 mm of the water column. This profiler provided new insights into the fine-scale structure of Microcystis scums, demonstrating that more microcystin-producing Microcystis was contained in the surface 5 mm than the 35 mm below. The results also showed that upregulation of microcystin production was highly localized in the top 2.5 mm of the Microcystis scum. Our results demonstrate that extreme changes in cyanobacterial communities can occur over small distances, and indicate that sampling resolution is of great importance for improving knowledge on cyanobacterial blooms and toxin production. While this study focused on microcystin-producing Microcystis, the cryogenic sampling tools described here could be applied to any planktonic microbial community.en_NZ
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherWileyen_NZ
dc.rightsThis is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
dc.titleFine-scale cryogenic sampling of planktonic microbial communities: Application to toxic cyanobacterial bloomsen_NZ
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.identifier.doi10.1002/lom3.10115en_NZ
dc.relation.isPartOfLimnology and Oceanography: Methodsen_NZ
pubs.begin-page600
pubs.elements-id142670
pubs.end-page609
pubs.issue9en_NZ
pubs.volume14en_NZ
dc.identifier.eissn1541-5856en_NZ


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