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dc.contributor.authorKing, Carolyn M.en_NZ
dc.date.accessioned2017-10-13T02:53:52Z
dc.date.available2017-01-01en_NZ
dc.date.available2017-10-13T02:53:52Z
dc.date.issued2017en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationKing, C. M. (2017). Liberation and spread of stoats (Mustela erminea) and weasels (M. nivalis) in New Zealand, 1883-1920. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 41(2), 163–177. https://doi.org/10.20417/nzjeco1.41.29en
dc.identifier.issn0110-6465en_NZ
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10289/11398
dc.description.abstractThis paper reviews the timing and spread of weasels and stoats across the South and North Islands of New Zealand during the late nineteenth century, entirely from historical records. The flavour of the debates and the assumptions that led to the commissioning of private and government shipments of these animals are best appreciated from the original documents. I describe the sites of the early deliberate releases in Otago, Canterbury, Marlborough, and Wairarapa, and list contemporary observations of the subsequent dispersal of the released animals to named locations in Southland, Westland, Wellington, Hawke’s Bay, Auckland and Northland. Originally, weasels were landed in far greater numbers than stoats (2622 weasels and 963 stoats listed in shipment records) and, while at first they were very abundant, they are now much less abundant than stoats. Two non-exclusive hypotheses could explain this historic change: (1) depletion of supplies of their preferred small prey including birds, mice, roosting bats, lizards, frogs and invertebrates, and (2) competition with stoats. Contemporary historic written observations on the first impacts of the arrivals of weasels and stoats on the native fauna offer graphic illustrations of what has been lost, but usually failed to consider the previous impacts of the abundant rats (Rattus exulans since the late 13th century, and R. norvegicus since 1770s–90s), and cannot now be distinguished from the activities of R. rattus arriving in the 1860s–90s.
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoenen_NZ
dc.publisherNew Zealand Ecological Societyen_NZ
dc.rights© New Zealand Ecological Society. Used with permission.
dc.subjectScience & Technologyen_NZ
dc.subjectLife Sciences & Biomedicineen_NZ
dc.subjectEcologyen_NZ
dc.subjectEnvironmental Sciences & Ecologyen_NZ
dc.subjectdispersalen_NZ
dc.subjectenvironmental historyen_NZ
dc.subjectintroduced predatorsen_NZ
dc.subjectliberationsen_NZ
dc.subjectmustelidsen_NZ
dc.subjectKAKA NESTOR-MERIDIONALISen_NZ
dc.subjectUNEXPECTED CONSEQUENCESen_NZ
dc.subjectINVASIVE PREDATORSen_NZ
dc.subjectPEST-CONTROLen_NZ
dc.subjectDECLINEen_NZ
dc.subjectPOPULATIONSen_NZ
dc.subjectBRITAINen_NZ
dc.subjectMAMMALSen_NZ
dc.subjectPROTECTen_NZ
dc.subjectFORESTen_NZ
dc.subjectdispersal
dc.subjectenvironmental history
dc.subjectintroduced predators
dc.subjectliberations
dc.subjectmustelids
dc.titleLiberation and spread of stoats (Mustela erminea) and weasels (M. nivalis) in New Zealand, 1883-1920en_NZ
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.identifier.doi10.20417/nzjeco1.41.29en_NZ
dc.relation.isPartOfNew Zealand Journal of Ecologyen_NZ
pubs.begin-page163
pubs.elements-id195270
pubs.end-page177
pubs.issue2en_NZ
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden_NZ
pubs.volume41en_NZ
dc.identifier.eissn1177-7788en_NZ


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