Chae, J., & Litvinenko, Y. E. (2017). Nonlinear Effects in Three-minute Oscillations of the Solar Chromosphere. I. An Analytical Nonlinear Solution and Detection of the Second Harmonic. The Astrophysical Journal, 844(2), 129–129. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa7be9
Permanent Research Commons link: https://hdl.handle.net/10289/11514
The vertical propagation of nonlinear acoustic waves in an isothermal atmosphere is considered. A new analytical solution that describes a finite-amplitude wave of an arbitrary wavelength is obtained. Although the short- and long-wavelength limits were previously considered separately, the new solution describes both limiting cases within a common framework and provides a straightforward way of interpolating between the two limits. Physical features of the nonlinear waves in the chromosphere are described, including the dispersive nature of low-frequency waves, the steepening of the wave profile, and the influence of the gravitational field on wavefront breaking and shock formation. The analytical results suggest that observations of three-minute oscillations in the solar chromosphere may reveal the basic nonlinear effect of oscillations with combination frequencies, superposed on the normal oscillations of the system. Explicit expressions for a second-harmonic signal and the ratio of its amplitude to the fundamental harmonic amplitude are derived. Observational evidence of the second harmonic, obtained with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph, installed at the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope of the Big Bear Observatory, is presented. The presented data are based on the time variations of velocity determined from the Na i D₂ and Hα lines.
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