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dc.contributor.authorTin Tin, Sandaren_NZ
dc.contributor.authorWoodward, Alistairen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorSaraf, Rajneetaen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorBerry, Sarahen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAtatoa Carr, Pollyen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorMorton, Susan M. B.en_NZ
dc.contributor.authorGrant, Cameron C.en_NZ
dc.date.accessioned2017-11-29T22:43:56Z
dc.date.available2016en_NZ
dc.date.available2017-11-29T22:43:56Z
dc.date.issued2016en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationTin Tin, S., Woodward, A., Saraf, R., Berry, S., Atatoa Carr, P., Morton, S. M. B., & Grant, C. C. (2016). Internal living environment and respiratory disease in children: Findings from the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal child cohort study. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, 15(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-016-0207-zen
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10289/11526
dc.description.abstractBackground: The incidence of early childhood acute respiratory infections (ARIs) has been associated with aspects of the indoor environment. In recent years, public awareness about some of these environmental issues has increased, including new laws and subsequent changes in occupant behaviours. This New Zealand study investigated current exposures to specific risk factors in the home during the first five years of life and provided updated evidence on the links between the home environment and childhood ARI hospitalisation. Methods: Pregnant women (n = 6822) were recruited in 2009 and 2010, and their 6853 children created a child cohort that was representative of New Zealand births from 2007-10. Longitudinal data were collected through face-to-face interviews and linkage to routinely collected national datasets. Incidence rates with Poisson distribution confidence intervals were computed and Cox regression modelling for repeated events was performed. Results: Living in a rented dwelling (48%), household crowding (22%) or dampness (20%); and, in the child's room, heavy condensation (20%) or mould or mildew on walls or ceilings (13%) were prevalent. In 14% of the households, the mother smoked cigarettes and in 30%, other household members smoked. Electric heaters were commonly used, followed by wood, flued gas and unflued portable gas heaters. The incidence of ARI hospitalisation before age five years was 33/1000 person-years. The risk of ARI hospitalisation was higher for children living in households where there was a gas heater in the child's bedroom: hazard ratio for flued gas heater 1.69 (95% CI: 1.21-2.36); and for unflued gas heater 1.68 (95% CI: 1.12-2.53); and where a gas heater was the sole type of household heating (hazard ratio: 1.64 (95% CI: 1.29-2.09)). The risk was reduced in households that used electric heaters (Hazard ratio: 0.74 (95% CI: 0.61-0.89)) or wood burners (hazard ratio: 0.79 (95% CI: 0.66-0.93)) as a form of household heating. The associations with other risk factors were not significant. Conclusions: The risk of early childhood ARI hospitalisation is increased by gas heater usage, specifically in the child's bedroom. Use of non-gas forms of heating may reduce the risk of early childhood ARI hospitalisation.en_NZ
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherBioMed Central
dc.rights© The Author(s). 2016 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
dc.titleInternal living environment and respiratory disease in children: Findings from the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal child cohort studyen_NZ
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/s12940-016-0207-zen_NZ
dc.relation.isPartOfEnvironmental Health: A Global Access Science Sourceen_NZ
pubs.begin-page1
pubs.elements-id145060
pubs.end-page10
pubs.issue1en_NZ
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden_NZ
pubs.volume15en_NZ
dc.identifier.eissn1476-069Xen_NZ


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