Indigenous Development and Self-Determination in West Papua: A Case Study of the Socio-Political and Economic Impacts of Mining upon the Amungme and Kamoro Communities of West Papua.
Hisada, T. (2007). Indigenous Development and Self-Determination in West Papua: A Case Study of the Socio-Political and Economic Impacts of Mining upon the Amungme and Kamoro Communities of West Papua. (Thesis, Master of Arts (MA)). The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10289/2457
Permanent Research Commons link: https://hdl.handle.net/10289/2457
Since West Papua was colonized by Indonesia in 1963, West Papuans have endured one of the most disastrous experiences of cultural andenvironmental destruction, human rights abuses and mass killing of the twentieth century. In the Western Highlands of West Papua, whereFreeport McMoRan, a mining company fromLouisiana, United States (U.S.), operates, therehave been long-standing disputes over environmental justice, human rights, the rightto control development, and wealthdistribution. Substantial research has been done on the negative impacts of the Freeport's operation on the Amungme and Kamoro communities who reside in the company's operating area. Yet, limitedresearch has been done regarding Freeport's social policies and the possible solutions to the issues which are crucial for the further development of Amungme and Kamoro. Therefore, the thesis firstly examines Freeport's recent social policies which have attempted to address the two communities' concerns as well as the social problems the company has caused around its operating area. The examination suggests that genuine reconciliation between Amungme and Kamoro communities and Freeport is a crucial next step in achieving successful community development in the area. The thesis employs a case study of the South African reconciliation processes via Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) to explore the prospects of achieving successful community development in Freeport's operating area of West Papua which might lead to prosperity for the Amungme and Kamoro peoples. In addition to this, the prospect ofpreventing the human rights violations by the Indonesian Military (Tentera Nasional Indonesia-TNI) is considered. The TNI, by carrying out the role of protecting the Freeport operation, has until today committed a large number of human rights violations against indigenous West Papuans around the mine thus preventing and inhibiting the future development of Amungme and Kamoro communities. Since major countries, including the U.S., the United Kingdom (UK), New Zealand and Australia, have until today,supported the Indonesia state and the TNI, the attitude of Pacific Island states towards the issue is examined. Finally, although the above processes are important, the study suggests the more important role of the Amungme and Kamoro themselves in taking responsibility for their plight and taking positive actions wherever possible to solve the issues surrounding them. Although the conflict continues to the present day, the research contained in the thesis outlines the situation in West Papua only up until November 2006.
The University of Waikato
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