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dc.contributor.authorOgino, Masayoshien_NZ
dc.date.accessioned2008-11-03T12:03:17Z
dc.date.available2009-05-07T15:58:24Z
dc.date.issued2008en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationOgino, M. (2008). Modified Output in Response to Clarification Requests and Second Language (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)). The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10289/2657en
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10289/2657
dc.description.abstractModified output, second language (L2) learners' reformulation of their own utterances, has been attracting researchers' interest as an important component of learner interactions, and as a manifestation of interlanguage development and psycholinguistic processing. The output hypothesis (Swain, 1985, 1993, 1995, 2005) claims that the act of production constitutes part of the process of L2 learning in terms of noticing, hypothesis testing and metalinguistic functions. This hypothesis has been used as a theoretical framework to investigate the relationship between modified output and L2 learning (e.g., McDonough, 2001, 2005; Nobuyoshi Ellis, 1993; O'Relly, Flatiz, Kromrey, 2001; Takashima Ellis, 1999). However, the empirical evidence from these studies does not yet appear to confirm unequivocally that the production of modified output facilitates L2 learning. The present study further explored the impact of modified output on L2 learning, by means of an experimental pre-test, post-test and delayed-post design. The production of modified output was triggered by one type of implicit feedback, clarification requests. The data were collected from 28 undergraduate students who were learning Japanese as a foreign language. The target linguistic feature was the negation of adjectives in Japanese, and a total of 1,011 negations were elicited and analysed. The impact of modified output on L2 learning was measured in two different aspects of potential outcomes of modified output (i.e., grammatical accuracy and interlanguage development). In addition, the study investigated whether the non-targetlike forms which participants previously modified were then produced in the subsequent situations of use. The output hypothesis was originally framed in terms of the relationship between output and grammatical accuracy, but the findings of the current study suggest that production of modified output in response to clarification requests may facilitate the progress of interlanguage development towards targetlike use even when its immediate impact on grammatical accuracy may not be observed. Therefore, the present study lends at least partial support to the claim of the output hypothesis. The results did not clearly demonstrate whether or not production of modified output might sensitise learners to avoid the use of the same non-targetlike form that they have previously modified. This indicates a possibility of the limited role of production of modified output in L2 learning, and suggests that the follow-up feedback to learners' modified output may be necessary to maximise the impact of modified output in facilitating L2 learning.en_NZ
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherThe University of Waikatoen_NZ
dc.rightsAll items in Research Commons are provided for private study and research purposes and are protected by copyright with all rights reserved unless otherwise indicated.
dc.subjectsecond language acquisitionen_NZ
dc.subjectmodified outputen_NZ
dc.subjectclarification requestsen_NZ
dc.subjectthe output hypothesisen_NZ
dc.subjectJapanese as a second languageen_NZ
dc.titleModified Output in Response to Clarification Requests and Second Languageen_NZ
dc.typeThesisen_NZ
thesis.degree.disciplineGeneral and Applied Linguisticsen_NZ
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Waikatoen_NZ
thesis.degree.levelDoctoral
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophy (PhD)en_NZ
uow.date.accession2008-11-03T12:03:17Zen_NZ
uow.date.available2009-05-07T15:58:24Zen_NZ
uow.identifier.adthttp://adt.waikato.ac.nz/public/adt-uow20081103.120317en_NZ
uow.date.migrated2009-06-14T21:47:51Zen_NZ
pubs.place-of-publicationHamilton, New Zealanden_NZ


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