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dc.contributor.authorPickering, Kim L.
dc.contributor.authorVerbeek, Casparus Johan R.
dc.contributor.authorViljoen, Carmen
dc.identifier.citationPickering, K.L., Verbeek, C.J.R. & Viljoen, C. (2012). The effect of aqueous urea on the processing, structure and properties of CGM. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 20(2), 335-343.en_NZ
dc.description.abstractCorn gluten meal (CGM) is potentially a cost-effective raw material for producing a bioderivable thermoplastic. However, CGM disintegrates to a powder subsequent to processing with polar plasticisers, such as water. The hypothesis of this study was that aqueous urea could be used to denature protein within CGM and therefore encourage protein–protein interactions leading to consolidated bioplastics when using water as a plasticiser. To assess this, the effects of aqueous urea on structure and properties of CGM with particular focus on storage were assessed. Processing of CGM with aqueous urea produced consolidated materials. FTIR analysis showed secondary structure was modified during processing, leading to increased amounts of α-helices and random coils and reduction of the amount of intermolecular β-sheets and turns. Above 6 wt% free water, the plasticising efficiency of water in processed CGM increased as the amount of denatured proteins increased. Below 6 wt% free water, protein secondary structure did not have a significant influence on thermal and flexural properties. It was found that storage environment and urea concentration influenced the rate of drying, however, the final water content was constant relative to CGM, and not urea. The materials were resistant to cracking at urea concentrations above 8 M, provided the mass loss during storage did not exceed 15 wt%.en_NZ
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Polymers and the Environment
dc.subjectcorn gluten mealen_NZ
dc.subjectaqueous ureaen_NZ
dc.subjectprotein secondary structureen_NZ
dc.titleThe Effect of Aqueous Urea on the Processing, Structure and Properties of CGMen_NZ
dc.typeJournal Articleen_NZ
dc.relation.isPartOfJournal of Polymers and the Environmenten_NZ

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