Walmsley, M. R. W., Walmsley, T. G., Matthews, L., Atkins, M. J., Neale, J. R., & Kamp, P. J. J. (2015). Pinch Analysis Techniques for Carbon Emissions Reduction in the New Zealand Industrial Process Heat Sector. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 45, 1087–1091. http://doi.org/10.3303/CET1545182
Permanent Research Commons link: https://hdl.handle.net/10289/9668
Options for reducing industrial process heat greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in New Zealand are investigated using the Carbon Emissions Pinch Analysis (CEPA) and Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI) analysis methods. Renewable sources like geothermal, biomass, biogas from animal waste and heat pumps from renewable electricity are investigated. Results indicate that some regions of New Zealand are well placed to make significant reductions to process heat GHG emissions through shifting from fossil fuel heating to renewable heating without a large increase in energy expended or cost. Reducing GHG emissions below 1990 levels can be achieved by using wood waste and biomass in place of coal (33.3 PJ) and biogas from animal waste in place of natural gas (12.1 PJ) where high temperature heating is required (>90 °C), and renewable electricity driven heat pumps for low temperature heating (<90 °C) in dairy and meat processing industries (7.0 PJ). The expected increase in expended energy is 20 %. Over all the Central North Island of New Zealand has a significant degree of renewable and natural resource convergence and hence is a prime region for creating low carbon emission industries requiring process heat based on renewable energy and agricultural and forestry waste.
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