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Devices to measure calf raise test outcomes: A narrative review.

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The calf raise test (CRT) is commonly administered without a device in clinics to measure triceps surae muscle function. To standardise and objectively quantify outcomes, researchers use research-grade or customised CRT devices. To incorporate evidence-based practice and apply testing devices effectively in clinics, it is essential to understand their design, applicability, psychometric properties, strengths, and limitations. Therefore, this review identifies, summarises, and critically appraises the CRT devices used in science. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched in April 2022. Studies that used devices to measure unilateral CRT outcomes (i.e., number of repetitions, work, height) were included. RESULTS: Thirty-five studies met inclusion, from which seven CRT devices were identified. Linear encoder (n = 18) was the most commonly used device, followed by laboratory equipment (n = 6) (three-dimensional motion capture and force plate). These measured the three CRT outcomes. Other devices used were electrogoniometer, Häggmark and Liedberg light beam device, Ankle Measure for Endurance and Strength (AMES), Haberometer, and custom-made. Devices were mostly used in healthy populations or Achilles tendon pathologies. AMES, Haberometer, and custom-made devices were the most clinician-friendly, but only quantified repetitions were completed. In late 2022, a computer vision mobile application appeared in the literature and offered clinicians a low-cost, research-grade alternative. CONCLUSION: This review details seven devices used to measure CRT outcomes. The linear encoder is the most common in research and quantifies all three CRT outcomes. Recent advances in computer-vision provide a low-cost research-grade alternative to clinicians and researchers via a n iOS mobile application.
Type
Journal Article
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Citation
Date
2023-07-13
Publisher
John Wiley & Sons
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Rights
© 2023 The Authors. This work is licensed under a CC BY 4.0 licence.