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Large scale K-means clustering using GPUs

Abstract
The k-means algorithm is widely used for clustering, compressing, and summarizing vector data. We present a fast and memory-efficient GPU-based algorithm for exact k-means, Asynchronous Selective Batched K-means (ASB K-means). Unlike most GPU-based k-means algorithms that require loading the whole dataset onto the GPU for clustering, the amount of GPU memory required to run our algorithm can be chosen to be much smaller than the size of the whole dataset. Thus, our algorithm can cluster datasets whose size exceeds the available GPU memory. The algorithm works in a batched fashion and applies the triangle inequality in each k-means iteration to omit a data point if its membership assignment, i.e., the cluster it belongs to, remains unchanged, thus significantly reducing the number of data points that need to be transferred between the CPU’s RAM and the GPU’s global memory and enabling the algorithm to very efficiently process large datasets. Our algorithm can be substantially faster than a GPU-based implementation of standard k-means even in situations when application of the standard algorithm is feasible because the whole dataset fits into GPU memory. Experiments show that ASB K-means can run up to 15x times faster than a standard GPU-based implementation of k-means, and it also outperforms the GPU-based k-means implementation in NVIDIA’s open-source RAPIDS machine learning library on all the datasets used in our experiments.
Type
Journal Article
Type of thesis
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Citation
Date
2022
Publisher
Springer Science and Business Media LLC
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Rights
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.