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Determining word–emotion associations from tweets by multi-label classification

The automatic detection of emotions in Twitter posts is a challenging task due to the informal nature of the language used in this platform. In this paper, we propose a methodology for expanding the NRC word-emotion association lexicon for the language used in Twitter. We perform this expansion using multi-label classification of words and compare different wordlevel features extracted from unlabelled tweets such as unigrams, Brown clusters, POS tags, and word2vec embeddings. The results show that the expanded lexicon achieves major improvements over the original lexicon when classifying tweets into emotional categories. In contrast to previous work, our methodology does not depend on tweets annotated with emotional hashtags, thus enabling the identification of emotional words from any domainspecific collection using unlabelled tweets.
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Bravo-Marquez, F., Frank, E., Mohammad, S. M., & Pfahringer, B. (2016). Determining word–emotion associations from tweets by multi-label classification. In Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence, Omaha, Nebraska, USA, 13-16 October, 2016(pp. 536–539). Los Alamitos, CA, USA: IEEE Computer Society. http://doi.org/10.1109/WI.2016.90
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