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Enhancing the assessment of gratitude in Mindfulness Research: a Rasch Analysis of the 6-Item Gratitude Questionnaire

Abstract
Objectives The 6-item gratitude questionnaire (GQ-6) is a widely used measure reported to be reliable and valid under traditional and Rasch investigations. However, recent investigations were inconsistent regarding the item structure of the GQ-6, with three investigations concluding that item 6 be removed. Previous Rasch analyses also did not produce interval conversion tables, a key benefit of this method which provides a means of improving scale accuracy and aligning the scale with the fundamental principles of measurement. Methods A Partial Credit Rasch Model was used to evaluate psychometric properties of the GQ-6 using a combined sample of 663 respondents from the USA (n = 345) and India (n = 318). Results Initial analysis showed significant scale dysfunction, with overall and individual item misfit, local dependency, disordered response thresholds, instances of differential item functioning by age and nationality, along with poor reliability. Through the use of recent advances in the Rasch methodology, locally dependent items were combined into two super-items and the best fit to the Rasch model was obtained with evidence of strict unidimensionality, invariance, and strong reliability. Results indicate the GQ-6 is suitable for individual and group assessment, while also permitting the creation of an ordinal-to-interval conversion algorithm which has been provided here. Conclusions This study confirmed the robust psychometric properties of the GQ-6 after minor modifications and provides a means for clinicians and researchers to improve the accuracy of this widely used measure in mindfulness research and other relevant studies without modification of its original response format.
Type
Journal Article
Type of thesis
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Citation
Date
2022
Publisher
Springer Science and Business Media LLC
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Rights
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.