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An assessment of the mantle and slab components in the magmas of an oceanic arc volcano: Raoul Volcano, Kermadec arc

Raoul Volcano occupies a simple oceanic subduction setting in the northern part of the Kermadec arc on the Pacific–Australian convergent plate boundary. The primary inputs to the magmatic system that feeds the volcano are a subduction component derived from the subducting old Pacific oceanic lithosphere and its veneer of pelagic sediment, and the overlying peridotitic mantle wedge. Conservative trace elements that are very incompatible during mantle melting are relatively depleted in Raoul lavas indicating a source that has been depleted during an earlier melting event. Major element co-variations indicate magma genesis by 25% near fractional melting of a mantle source that is weakly depleted (2% melt extraction) relative to a fertile MORB source. An important influence on the composition of the mantle component is progressive melt extraction coupled with minimal advection of fresh material into the sub-arc zone followed by melt extraction from a melting column beneath the spreading centre of an adjacent back arc basin. High field strength element and rare earth element systematics indicate involvement of a subduction-related component of constant composition. Two fluid components can be distinguished, one enriched in large ion lithophile elements inferred to be an aqueous fluid that is continuously added to the ascending melt column and the other a less mobile fluid that transfers Th. A homogeneous subduction-related component of constant composition and magnitude arises if the slab-derived flux migrates from the slab–mantle interface to the sub-arc melting column by repeated episodes of amphibole formation and decomposition its composition is then governed by the distribution coefficients of pyroxene and its magnitude by the degree of amphibole saturation of mantle peridotite. The results from Raoul Volcano are comparable to those from other oceanic subduction-related arcs such as South Sandwich and Marianas suggesting that this is a general model for oceanic arcs.
Journal Article
Type of thesis
Smith, I.E.M., Price, R.C., Stewart, R.B. & Worthington, T.J. (2009). An assessment of the mantle and slab components in the magmas of an oceanic arc volcano: Raoul Volcano, Kermadec arc. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 184(3-4), 437-450.
This is an author’s accepted version of an article published in the journal: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.