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‘Synthetic prospecting’ using an electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry directed survey of the alkylation and arylation chemistry of [Pt₂(μ-S)₂(PPh₃)₄]

Abstract
Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been used as an analytical tool in a wide-ranging scoping study of the alkylation and arylation reactions of [Pt₂(μ-S)₂(PPh₃)₄]. From these experiments, the factors that influence the formation of different product species – formed by mono- or di-alkylation – are determined. If the alkylating agent is an alkyl chloride or sulfate, monoalkylation followed by dialkylation of the two sulfido groups occurs, dependent on the alkylating power of the reagent used. For example, n-butyl chloride gives solely [Pt₂(μ-S)(μ-SBu)(PPh₃)₄]⁺ while dimethyl sulfate gives [Pt₂(μ-SMe)₂(PPh₃)₄]²⁺. This species, previously unisolated is stable in the absence of good nucleophiles, but the addition of potassium iodide results in rapid conversion to [Pt₂(μ-SMe)₂(PPh₃)₃I]⁺. This iodo complex is also observed from the reaction of [Pt₂(μ-S)₂(PPh₃)₄] with excess MeI, after the initial formation of mono- and di-methylated species. In these reactions, the iodide presumably displaces a phosphine ligand, which is then quaternised by excess alkylating agent. Changing the alkylating agent to a longer chain alkyl iodide or methyl bromide decreases the rate of alkylation of the sulfide in the initially formed [Pt₂(μ-S)(μ-SR)(PPh₃)₄]⁺. Mixed-thiolate species of the type [Pt₂(μ-SMe)(μ-SR)(PPh₃)₄]²⁺ are easily generated by reaction of [Pt²(μ-S)(μ-SR)(PPh₃)₄]⁺ with excess Me₂SO₄ and is also dependent on the avoidance of nucleophiles. Reactions towards α,ω-dialkylating agents are surveyed; the chain length is found to have a dramatic effect on the rate of the second intramolecular cyclisation process, illustrated by a competitive reactivity study involving a mixture of Br(CH₂)₄Br and Br(CH₂)₅Br; on completion of the reaction the former gives [Pt₂{μ-S(CH₂)₄S}(PPh₃)₄]²⁺ while the latter predominantly gives monoalkylated[Pt₂(μ-S){μ-S(CH₂)₅Br}(PPh₃)₄]⁺. The reactivity of o- and p-dihaloxylenes has been explored, with the reaction with p-BrCH₂C₆H₄CH₂Br giving the bridged species [(PPh₃)₄Pt₂(μ-S)(μ-SCH₂C₆H₄CH₂S)(μ-S)Pt₂(PPh₃)₄]²⁺. Arylation reactions of [Pt₂(μ-S)₂(PPh₃)₄] with halobenzenes and 2-bromoheterocyclic compounds (pyridine, thiophene) are also described.
Type
Journal Article
Type of thesis
Series
Citation
Henderson, W., Chong, S. H., & Hor, T. S. A. (2006). ‘Synthetic prospecting’ using an electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry directed survey of the alkylation and arylation chemistry of [Pt₂(μ-S)₂(PPh₃)₄]. Inorganica Chimica Acta, 359(11), 3440-3450.
Date
2006
Publisher
Elsevier BV
Degree
Supervisors
Rights