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Makahiki – Nā Maka o Lono utilizing the Papakū Makawalu method to analyze mele and pule of Lono and the Makahiki

This paper seeks to affirm Papakū Makawalu as a Hawaiian methodology that can be utilized to understand moʻolelo, mele and pule. Papakū makawalu is a name given to the process of deconstructing, analyzing, and reconstructing Hawaiian genres of discourse for the purpose of separating the embedded layers of metaphor to reveal the many possibilities of interpretation. The topics of choice that will be subjected to the papakū makawalu process are Lono and his role in the Makahiki festivities as recorded in mele and pule. This paper specifically examines the processes of time keeping, as Lonoikamakahiki is the akua of establishing the annual calendar by feeding the stars and aligning the calendar with the star constellation Makaliʻi. Lonomakua is the akua of ritual fire and all the geological activities that occur during the Makahiki. Lononuiākea is the akua for the celestial and atmospheric activities that transpire during the Makahiki season. The rituals, mele and pule that have been composed for these environmental expectations are rooted in generational observations to which layers upon layers of metaphor are added to describe Lono and his kino lau akua (manifestations). Papakū makawalu will establish that the environmental indicators that are affiliated with the season of Lono are in fact the kino lau akua of Lono. Papakū makawalu allows modern Hawaiians the means to expose the many layers and to understand Lono, which in turn allows the kānaka to better understand the ritual rules of engagement between the kānaka Hawaiʻi and the natural environment.
Type of thesis
Nuuhiwa, A. K. (2020). Makahiki – Nā Maka o Lono utilizing the Papakū Makawalu method to analyze mele and pule of Lono and the Makahiki (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)). The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10289/13955
The University of Waikato
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