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    Pedagogies of kindness for student completion, retention, and wellbeing
    (Conference Contribution, 2023-11-27) Weijers, Dan M.; Stevens, Kate
    Participants will hear reasons and small scale evidence for being very supportive to students in the way they communicate with them, especially around late assignments.
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    Sexual orientation and gender identity change efforts for young people in New Zealand: Demographics, types of suggesters, and associations with mental health
    (Journal Article, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2023) Fenaughty, J; Tan, Kyle K. H.; Ker, A; Veale, Jaimie; Saxton, P; Alansari, M
    Sexual orientation and gender identity change efforts (SOGICE) are harmful practices, yet who suggests them to young people and what impacts are associated with these suggestions have received limited attention in the literature. The present study explored whether certain suggesters, and the frequency of categories of suggesters (including religious leaders, family members, and health professionals), were associated with suicidality and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The study also explored whether particular demographics of young people were more likely to report SOGICE experiences. Data were collected through an online survey of New Zealand gender- and sexuality-diverse youth. The sample (n = 3948) had an age range of 14–26 (mean age = 18.96), and approximately half (52.4%) were transgender or gender-diverse. Odds of suicidality and NSSI were highest when religious leaders suggested SOGICE and when more than one type of suggester was reported. SOGICE was more likely to be reported by transgender and gender-diverse youth, statutory care- and homelessness-experienced youth, and young people reporting current material deprivation. Implications for targeted mental health services and education for young people and the community are discussed.
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    Fly-tipping: Drivers, deterrents and impacts
    (Report, UK Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, 2022) Purdy, R; Crocker, M; Borrion, H; Ekblom, P; Tompson, Lisa; Galvin, J; Fouquet, R
    Fly-tipping is a significant problem in England. For the 2020/21 year, Local Authorities (LAs) in England dealt with 1.13 million fly-tipping incidents, an increase of 16% from the 980,000 reported in 2019/20. The cost of clearance for larger incidents also increased in the last year (a 6% increase from 2019/20). Additionally, these operational metrics do not capture the full picture as they only include public land. It is important for Government to better understand the main causes and consequences of fly-tipping because it has significant financial, social and environmental impacts which affect communities across the length and breadth of the country. It is at best unsightly, can impact public amenities, and negatively affect people’s perception of where they live and their quality of life. It can also pose risks to the environment and human/animal health. For example, there have been cases where dangerous waste has been deposited near water reservoirs in recent years. Those who fly-tip can also avoid paying disposal costs, impose clean-up costs on taxpayers and private landowners (who can also be responsible in many cases for the costs of clear up), as well as undercutting legitimate waste businesses. Additionally fly-tipping can also undermine achieving a circular economy. If Government can’t deal effectively with it then it becomes harder to achieve recycling and other targets. Despite the continuous efforts of the Government, LAs, National Fly-Tipping Prevention Group, Environment Agency, and charities in tackling fly-tipping, the situation isn’t improving and the problem appears more entrenched than ever. The 2006 Jill Dando Institute project commissioned by Government to look at fly-tipping identified that enforcement had dominated the thinking behind tackling fly-tipping at the expense of a strategic approach. Fifteen years later the focus is still on stronger regulation, with a large reliance on tip-offs, or clues in the waste identifying the perpetrator. This approach has not been as effective as hoped because of the resourcing implications of regulation and enforcement, and more generally hasn’t satisfactorily addressed the drivers behind fly-tipping. This research was commissioned by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in 2021 because it has become increasingly obvious to Government that a more detailed and systematic examination of the factors influencing fly-tipping was necessary, and the expectation is that such a review might help provide better evidence based policy making and influence future strategies and interventions.
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    Sustainable shellfish growth: Investigating microalgae production techniques and species selection for Perna canaliculus larvae in a commercial hatchery
    (Thesis, The University of Waikato, 2024) Norgate, Summer
    In order to fulfil the Aquaculture Strategy employed by the New Zealand Government and achieve the goal of increasing industry revenue to $3billion by 2035, more mussel spat hatcheries must be developed to deliver reliable spat supplies. Hatcheries are expensive to operate, especially to produce microalgae for larval feed; therefore, finding the most efficient procedures for spat deliverance and algae production is of utmost importance. Diets high in Chaetoceros calcitrans supplemented with Tisochrysis lutea are conventionally fed to Perna canaliculus larvae and current production methods are not feasible in a commercial scale hatchery due to the high cost and labour of operating the systems. Therefore, the effect of microalgal diet on larval performance was investigated for two diets significantly reducing the C. calcitrans proportion compared to the conventional diet (control). Furthermore, batch crashes of microalgae are common and disrupt daily operations due to the sensitivity of larvae to changes in food availability or species compositions, which could result in significant setbacks for a hatchery. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate alternative production methods or substitute proportions of the species with an alternative microalgae species. A fourth diet completely substituting T. lutea with Diacronema lutheri was investigated to determine if the species could be interchanged in the case of a batch failure. Fatty acid analysis alongside indicators such as larval growth, umbo yield, pediveliger yield, spat yield, settlement success, ingestion rates and capture efficiency were investigated to determine larval performance. In contrast to previous studies suggesting that high levels of DHA and EPA are essential for larval growth and survival, there was no clear pattern as to how high DHA and EPA levels benefit larval performance in P. canaliculus. It was found that P. canaliculus larvae fed the lowest proportion of C. calcitrans supplemented with C. muelleri had the lowest EPA content across the larval period but performed the best, in contrast to larvae fed the most EPA rich- diet consisting of C. calcitrans and D. lutheri which performed the worst. Findings from this study imply that it is more beneficial to investigate precursor fatty acids or the sum of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, opening opportunity for further research to better identify nutritional requirements of P. canaliculus larvae. In conclusion, a reduction in C. calcitrans did not adversely affect the growth or yield of larvae. In fact, the yields and settlement success were similar to that of the conventional microalgal diet. Therefore, diets with low C. calcitrans replaced by C. muelleri may be better suited for application to a commercial scale hatchery to reduce the strain placed on labour and logistics associated with C. calcitrans batch production. Furthermore, it was found that the use of D. lutheri as a complete replacement of T. lutea is not recommended due to the low larval performance associated with the diet. These findings enable resources and energy to be focussed elsewhere allowing the production of more mussels with lower resource inputs, reducing the environmental footprint of aquaculture operations.
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    Sustaining e-commerce profitability: A hybrid quantitative investigation into critical success factors (CSFs)
    (Thesis, The University of Waikato, 2024-06-13) Kord, Hamidreza
    In the contemporary digital landscape, e-commerce has rapidly evolved, reshaping consumer behaviour and the retail industry. This study explores the dynamic factors affecting customer satisfaction and profitability in e-commerce. Utilising a comprehensive methodological framework that includes fuzzy Delphi, fuzzy BWM, C-means clustering, and fuzzy COPRAS methods, the research identifies and prioritises critical success factors influencing online consumer behaviour. An analysis of 602 customer records classifies purchasing behaviours and demographic characteristics into distinct clusters. Key findings underscore the significance of customer reviews, recommendation systems, shopping satisfaction, and personalised shopping experiences in driving e-commerce success. Methodologically, the study demonstrates the effectiveness of advanced analytical techniques in managing uncertainty and complexity in e-commerce data. Despite its contributions, the research acknowledges limitations, including the cross-sectional nature of the data, sample size constraints, and the need for broader generalisability. Future research directions include integrating emerging technologies, conducting longitudinal studies, and developing cross-channel strategies to enhance customer engagement and profitability.

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