Completeness, conservation and error in SPH for fluids
Vaughan, G.L., Healy, T.R., Bryan, K.R., Sneyd, A.D. & Gorman, R.M.(2008). Completeness, conservation and error in SPH for fluids. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 56(1), 37-62.
Permanent Research Commons link: https://hdl.handle.net/10289/1790
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is becoming increasingly common in the numerical simulation of complex fluid flows and an understanding of the errors is necessary. Recent advances have established techniques for ensuring completeness conditions (low-order polynomials are interpolated exactly) are enforced when estimating property gradients, but the consequences on errors have not been investigated. Here, we present an expression for the error in an SPH estimate, accounting for completeness, an expression that applies to SPH generally. We revisit the derivation of the SPH equations for fluids, paying particular attention to the conservation principles. We find that a common method for enforcing completeness violates a property required of the kernel gradients, namely that gradients with respect the two position variables be equal and opposite. In such models this means conservation principles are not enforced and we present results that show this. As an aside we show the summation interpolant for density is a solution of, and may be used in the place of, the discretized, symmetrized continuity equation. Finally, we examine two examples of discretization errors, namely numerical boundary layers and the existence of crystallized states. Copyright ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.