Osborne, M.W., Ling, N., Hicks, B.J. & Tempero, G.W. (2009). Movement, social cohesion, and site fidelity in adult koi carp, Cyprinus carpio. Fisheries Management and Ecology 16(3), 169-176.
Permanent Research Commons link: https://hdl.handle.net/10289/2215
Koi carp is an ornamental variant of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., that was introduced to New Zealand in the 1960s and has since become a major aquatic pest. A total of 1265 wild adult koi carp were caught by boat electric fishing, dart tagged and released at multiple sites in the lower Waikato River and associated lakes and wetlands between September 2002 and February 2005. Subsequent recaptures by boat electric fishing and recreational fishing returned 76 koi carp (6% of all tagged fish). Of these, 85% were recaptured less than 5 km from their release site; only one fish moved more than 50 km. On seven occasions, pairs or small groups of koi carp (20% of all tag returns) that had previously been tagged and released at the same locations and times were subsequently recaptured together after considerable periods of time at liberty (mean 551 days ± 419 SD). Adult koi carp in the Waikato River showed a high degree of site fidelity, exhibited prolonged social groupings and females moved downstream more often than males.
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