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dc.contributor.authorPetchey, Fiona
dc.contributor.authorAnderson, Atholl
dc.contributor.authorHogg, Alan G.
dc.contributor.authorZondervan, Albert
dc.date.accessioned2009-08-17T21:44:39Z
dc.date.available2009-08-17T21:44:39Z
dc.date.issued2008
dc.identifier.citationAnderson, A., Hogg, A., Petchey, F. & Zondervan, A. (2008). The marine reservoir effect in the Southern Ocean: an evaluation of extant and new R values and their application to archaeological chronologies. Journal of Royal Society of New Zealand, 38, 243-262.en
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10289/2838
dc.description.abstractThe last phase of human colonisation of the south-west Pacific occurred around the 12th Century AD amongst the islands of the subtropical and temperate zones of the Southern Ocean (i.e., Norfolk Island, the Kermadec Islands, New Zealand and the Chatham Islands) (Fig. 1). Archaeological evidence indicates that initial colonisation of the region was rapid, possibly taking less than 100 years. Unfortunately, the chronology of these events has been largely reliant on charcoal radiocarbon determinations that have not been successful in delineating these changes. This paper investigates the use of marine shell for radiocarbon dating as an alternative to charcoal, with specific focus on variation in the marine 14C reservoir (specifically the ∆R) of Raoul Island (Kermadec Islands), Norfolk Island and Chatham Island (Fig. 2). Results from known-age, pre-AD 1950 shellfish indicate that ∆R values south of the South Pacific Convergence Zone are low compared to those recorded for islands within the South Pacific generally (Fig. 1) (see Petchey et al.in press). An average ∆R value of –19 ± 13 14C yr is recorded for Raoul Island and –49 ± 10 14C yr for Norfolk Island. These values are attributed to heightened absorption of atmospheric CO2 in this region. Extant published ∆R information from New Zealand (Fig. 2A) also suggests a low average ∆R value for these southern waters, but the range of values indicates that considerable variability is possible because of the complex interplay of currents around the New Zealand coastline. In contrast, results from Chatham Island are more variable and much higher (average ∆R = 134 ± 83 14C yr). Stable oxygen and carbon isotope data support the hypothesis that these ∆R values are caused by upwelling and mixing of 14C-depleted water along the Chatham Rise. Comparison of marine and charcoal 14C determinations from archaeological sites on Raoul Island support, within the limits of the available data, the ∆R values obtained, but further analysis is required to establish the stability of this value over time.en
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherR S N Z Publishingen_NZ
dc.relation.urihttp://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a919436762en
dc.subject∆Ren
dc.subjectmarine shellen
dc.subjectKermadec Islandsen
dc.subjectNorfolk Islanden
dc.subjectChatham Islanden
dc.titleThe marine reservoir effect in the Southern Ocean: an evaluation of extant and new R values and their application to archaeological chronologiesen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.identifier.doi10.1080/03014220809510559en_NZ
dc.relation.isPartOfJournal of the Royal Society of New Zealanden_NZ
pubs.begin-page243en_NZ
pubs.elements-id34252
pubs.end-page262en_NZ
pubs.issue4en_NZ
pubs.volume38en_NZ


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