Carbon Emissions Pinch Analysis (CEPA) for emissions reduction in the New Zealand electricity sector
Atkins, M. J., Morrison, A. S. & Walmsley, M. R. W.(2010). Carbon Emissions Pinch Analysis (CEPA) for emissions reduction in the New Zealand electricity sector. Applied Energy, 87(3), 982-987.
Permanent Research Commons link: https://hdl.handle.net/10289/3745
Carbon Emissions Pinch Analysis (CEPA) is a recent extension of traditional thermal and mass pinch analysis to the area of emissions targeting and planning on a macro-scale (i.e. economy wide). This paper presents an extension to the current methodology that accounts for increased demand and a carbon pinch analysis of the New Zealand electricity industry while illustrating some of the issues with realising meaningful emissions reductions. The current large proportion of renewable generation (67% in 2007) complicates extensive reduction of carbon emissions from electricity generation. The largest growth in renewable generation is expected to come from geothermal generation followed by wind and hydro. A four fold increase in geothermal generation capacity is needed in addition to large amounts of new wind generation to reduce emissions to around 1990 levels and also meet projected demand. The expected expansion of geothermal generation in New Zealand raises issues of GHG emissions from the geothermal fields. The emissions factors between fields can vary by almost two orders of magnitude making predictions of total emissions highly site specific.
This is an author’s accepted version of an article published in the journal: Applied Energy.© 2010 Elsevier Ltd.