Daniel, A.J., Hicks, B.J., Ling, N. & David, B.O. (2011). Movements of radio- and acoustic-tagged adult Koi carp in the Waikato River, New Zealand. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 31(2), 352-362.
Permanent Research Commons link: https://hdl.handle.net/10289/5384
The movement of koi, a highly colored variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio, was monitored for 18 months in the Waikato River, New Zealand, with both radiotelemetry and acoustic telemetry. Koi had large total linear ranges (mean, 39 km), and most fish (74%) monitored for more than 250 d traveled between the Waikato River and lateral habitat. Differences in total linear range and mean daily movement between years suggest a behavioral response associated with reduced habitat availability during periods of low flow. The movements of koi were highly variable and infrequent, suggesting that important long-range movements are missed in short-term studies (<250 d), resulting in underestimations of total linear range. Our data suggest that large numbers of koi could have been intercepted traveling between lateral habitat and the Waikato River during 1 of 2 years, indicating that point source removal would be highly effective.
Taylor & Francis