Bier, J. M., van der Merwe, D. Verbeek, C. J. R. & Lay, M. C. (2012). Time dependent properties of thermoplastic protein produced from bloodmeal with sodium sulphite as an anti-crosslinking agent. In Proceedings of Chemeca 2012: Quality of life through chemical engineering: 23-26 September 2012, Wellington, New Zealand. (pp. 361-370).
Permanent Research Commons link: https://hdl.handle.net/10289/7834
The aim of this research was to investigate how the time dependent mechanical behaviour of bloodmeal-based thermoplastic was affected by varying sodium sulphite content at two injection moulding temperatures (120°C at exit or 140°C at exit). Thermoplastic protein was prepared by extrusion with 2, 3 or 4g sodium sulphite (SS), 3g sodium dodecyl sulphate, 10 g urea, 20 g triethylene glycol and 40 g water per 100 g bloodmeal, then injection moulded into test specimens. Pull to break, creep and stress relaxation tests were performed on conditioned samples and glass transition temperature (Tg) was determined by dynamic mechanical analysis. Ultimate tensile strength was 7.9, 7.6 and 5.6 MPa for samples moulded at 120°C and 7.6, 6.3 and 5.7 MPa when moulded at 140°C with 2, 3 and 4 g SS respectively. Experimental creep data was modelled with a 4 element model, consisting of a spring and dashpot in parallel, in series with an additional spring and dashpot. Plotting creep compliance versus time showed increasing chain mobility as SS content increased. Relaxation was modelled with the Struik equation for short-time experiments. Relaxation times were 530, 360 and 250 s with 2, 3 and 4 g SS respectively when moulded at the lower temperature. At 140°C, relaxation times were 440, 430 and 190 s for these SS contents. Tg was in the range 57-65°C (1 Hz peak in tanδ) for all samples, but was lowest for samples with 4 g SS. These results show that both increased sodium sulphite and the higher moulding temperature increased chain mobility in the processed plastic.
This article has been published in the proceedings of Chemeca 2012: Quality of life through chemical engineering. Used with permission.