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dc.contributor.authorParfitt, R. L.
dc.contributor.authorBaisden, W. Troy
dc.contributor.authorSchipper, Louis A.
dc.contributor.authorMackay, A. D.
dc.date.accessioned2013-11-26T04:07:01Z
dc.date.available2013-11-26T04:07:01Z
dc.date.copyright2008-06
dc.date.issued2008
dc.identifier.citationParfitt, R. L., Baisden, W. T., Schipper, L. A., & Mackay, A. D. (2008). Nitrogen inputs and outputs for New Zealand at national and regional scales: Past, present and future scenarios. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 38(2), 71-87.en_NZ
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10289/8237
dc.description.abstractThe Nanjing Declaration on Nitrogen Management calls for national governments to optimise N management by several strategies including assessment of N cycles. In New Zealand, reactive N continues to be added to the environment mainly by biological N fixation, and increasingly from N fertiliser additions. Here, we extend our work on N budgets in 2001/02 for New Zealand (267 000 km²), at both national and regional scales, to 1861, 2020 and 2050. We first attempt to estimate the N cycle for 1861, the year of the first census and when European settlers were beginning to clear large areas of forest for agriculture in some regions. For the future, we adopt two scenarios: agricultural production increasing at 3% p.a., and a “cap and trade” scheme for N. These scenarios provide instructive results by projecting two very different potential policy directions into the future; they do not represent predictions. The 3% growth scenario warns of ever‐increasing N loads on the environment. The cap and trade scenario (such as may be introduced by regional councils) supports the development of a mechanism by which farmers might constrain N losses without regulations being introduced. These scenarios seek to provide farmers, industry and regulators with an understanding of the large range of future possibilities. This paper highlights the urgency with which primary industry must move away from increased production per se to systems where value is added to products.en_NZ
dc.language.isoenen_NZ
dc.publisherTaylor & Francisen_NZ
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of the Royal Society of New Zealand
dc.relation.urihttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03014220809510547#.UpQMFNIW1rMen_NZ
dc.subjectammoniaen_NZ
dc.subjectcloveren_NZ
dc.subjectdenitrificationen_NZ
dc.subjecterosionen_NZ
dc.subjectnitrateen_NZ
dc.subjectriversen_NZ
dc.subjectsedimenten_NZ
dc.titleNitrogen inputs and outputs for New Zealand at national and regional scales: Past, present and future scenariosen_NZ
dc.typeJournal Articleen_NZ
dc.identifier.doi10.1080/03014220809510547en_NZ
dc.relation.isPartOfJournal of the Royal Society of New Zealanden_NZ
pubs.begin-page71en_NZ
pubs.elements-id32986
pubs.end-page87en_NZ
pubs.issue2en_NZ
pubs.volume38en_NZ


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