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dc.contributor.authorAronson, Myla F. J.
dc.contributor.authorLa Sorte, Frank A.
dc.contributor.authorNilon, Charles H.
dc.contributor.authorKatti, Madhusudan
dc.contributor.authorGoddard, Mark A.
dc.contributor.authorLepczyk, Christopher A.
dc.contributor.authorWarren, Paige S.
dc.contributor.authorWillaims, Nicholas S. G.
dc.contributor.authorClilliers, Sarel
dc.contributor.authorClarkson, Bruce D.
dc.contributor.authorDobbs, Synnamon
dc.contributor.authorDolan, Rebecca
dc.contributor.authorHedblom, Marcus
dc.contributor.authorKlotz, Stefan
dc.contributor.authorKooijmans, Jip Louwe
dc.contributor.authorKühn, Ingolf
dc.contributor.authorMacGregor-Fors, Ian
dc.contributor.authorMcDonnell, Mark
dc.contributor.authorMörtberg, Ulla
dc.contributor.authorPyšek, Petr
dc.contributor.authorSiebert, Stefan
dc.contributor.authorSushinsky, Jessica
dc.contributor.authorWerner, Peter
dc.contributor.authorWinter, Marten
dc.identifier.citationAronson, M. F. J., La Sorte, F. A., Nilson, C. H., Katti, M., Goddard, M. A., …, Winter, M. (2014). A global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic drivers. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281, 20133330.en_NZ
dc.description.abstractUrbanization contributes to the loss of the world's biodiversity and the homogenization of its biota. However, comparative studies of urban biodiversity leading to robust generalities of the status and drivers of biodiversity in cities at the global scale are lacking. Here, we compiled the largest global dataset to date of two diverse taxa in cities: birds (54 cities) and plants (110 cities). We found that the majority of urban bird and plant species are native in the world's cities. Few plants and birds are cosmopolitan, the most common being Columba livia and Poa annua. The density of bird and plant species (the number of species per km2) has declined substantially: only 8% of native bird and 25% of native plant species are currently present compared with estimates of non-urban density of species. The current density of species in cities and the loss in density of species was best explained by anthropogenic features (landcover, city age) rather than by non-anthropogenic factors (geography, climate, topography). As urbanization continues to expand, efforts directed towards the conservation of intact vegetation within urban landscapes could support higher concentrations of both bird and plant species. Despite declines in the density of species, cities still retain endemic native species, thus providing opportunities for regional and global biodiversity conservation, restoration and education.en_NZ
dc.publisherThe Royal Societyen_NZ
dc.subjectanthropogenic activitiesen_NZ
dc.subjectglobal biodiversityen_NZ
dc.subjectnative speciesen_NZ
dc.subjectdensity of speciesen_NZ
dc.titleA global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic driversen_NZ
dc.typeJournal Articleen_NZ

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