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dc.contributor.authorSalvitti, Lauren R.
dc.contributor.authorWood, Susanna A.
dc.contributor.authorMcNabb, Paul
dc.contributor.authorCary, S. Craig
dc.coverage.spatialSwitzerlanden_NZ
dc.date.accessioned2015-05-20T21:31:44Z
dc.date.available2015-01-28
dc.date.available2015-05-20T21:31:44Z
dc.date.issued2015-01-28
dc.identifier.citationSalvitti, L. R., Wood, S. A., McNabb, P., & Cary, S. C. (2015). No evidence for a culturable bacterial tetrodotoxin producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida). Toxins, 7(2), 255–273. http://doi.org/10.3390/toxins7020255en
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10289/9329
dc.description.abstractTetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin found in the tissues of many taxonomically diverse organisms. Its origin has been the topic of much debate, with suggestions including endogenous production, acquisition through diet, and symbiotic bacterial synthesis. Bacterial production of TTX has been reported in isolates from marine biota, but at lower than expected concentrations. In this study, 102 strains were isolated from Pleurobranchaea maculata (Opisthobranchia) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes). Tetrodotoxin production was tested utilizing a recently developed sensitive method to detect the C9 base of TTX via liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry. Bacterial strains were characterized by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. To account for the possibility that TTX is produced by a consortium of bacteria, a series of experiments using marine broth spiked with various P. maculata tissues were undertaken. Sixteen unique strains from P. maculata and one from Stylochoplana sp. were isolated, representing eight different genera; Pseudomonadales, Actinomycetales, Oceanospirillales, Thiotrichales, Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, and Vibrionales. Molecular fingerprinting of bacterial communities from broth experiments showed little change over the first four days. No C9 base or TTX was detected in isolates or broth experiments (past day 0), suggesting a culturable microbial source of TTX in P. maculata and Stylochoplana sp. is unlikely.
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherMDPI AG
dc.relation.urihttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/7/2/255
dc.rights© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
dc.subjectbacteria
dc.subjectliquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
dc.subjectPleurobranchaea maculate
dc.subjectStylochoplana sp
dc.subjecttetrodotoxin
dc.titleNo evidence for a culturable bacterial tetrodotoxin producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida)
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/toxins7020255
dc.relation.isPartOfToxins
pubs.begin-page255
pubs.elements-id119138
pubs.end-page273
pubs.issue2
pubs.notesEvidence of peer review: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/toxins/about
pubs.organisational-group/Waikato
pubs.organisational-group/Waikato/FSEN
pubs.organisational-group/Waikato/FSEN/School of Science
pubs.volume7
dc.identifier.eissn2072-6651


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