2021 Working Papers

Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 2 of 2
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    Usable-by-Construction a formal framework
    (Report, University of Waikato, 2021) Reeves, Steve
    We propose here to look at how abstract a model of a usable system can be, but still say something useful and interesting, so this paper is an exercise in abstraction and formalisation, with usability-of-design as an example target use. We take the view that when we claim to be designing a usable system we have, at the very least, to give assurances about its usability properties. This is a very abstract notion, but provides the basis for future work, and shows, even at this level that there are things to say about the (very concrete) business of designing and building usable, interactive systems. Various forms of verification and validation can provide a high level of assurance but it can be very costly, and there is clearly a lot of resistance to doing things this way. In this paper, we introduce the idea of usable-by-construction, which adopts and applies the ideas of correct-by-construction to (very abstractly) thinking about usable systems. We give a set of construction rules or tactics to develop designs of usable systems, and we also formalize them into a state suitable for, for example, a proof assistant to check claims made for the system as designed. In the future, these tactics would allow us to create systems that have the required usability properties and thus provide a basis to a usable-by-construction system. Also, we should then go on to show that the tactics preserve properties by using an example system with industrial strength requirements. And we might also consider future research directions.
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    Participatory data design: managing data sovereignty in IoT solutions
    (Journal Article, Oxford University Press, 2022) Bowen, Judy; Hinze, Annika
    Within the software engineering community, deciding how to collect, store and use personal data has become about more than just understanding our users. This paper considers ethical data use which includes cultural considerations and data ownership rights. We discuss indigenous data sovereignty as a concept and how it potentially impacts technological solutions that gather personal data from users. We propose an extension to typical user-centred design processes which we call participatory data design. This incorporates the use of frameworks and tools that specifically focus on managing data within the cultural context it is gathered from. We also present a specific example of how we have used this approach in the context of a data collection project from M¯aori workers in New Zealand forestry. We conclude with a discussion of the wider implications of this approach.