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dc.contributor.authorSpector, Paul E.
dc.contributor.authorCooper, Cary L.
dc.contributor.authorSparks, Kate
dc.contributor.authorBernin, Peggy
dc.contributor.authorBussing, Andre
dc.contributor.authorDewe, Phil
dc.contributor.authorLu, Luo
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Karen
dc.contributor.authorDe Moraes, Lucio Renault
dc.contributor.authorO’Driscoll, Michael P.
dc.contributor.authorPagon, Milan
dc.contributor.authorPitariu, Horia
dc.contributor.authorPoelmans, Steven A.Y.
dc.contributor.authorRadhakrishnan, Phani
dc.contributor.authorRussinova, Vesselina
dc.contributor.authorSalamatov, Vladimir
dc.contributor.authorSalgado, Jesus
dc.contributor.authorSanchez, Juan I.
dc.contributor.authorSiu, Oi Ling
dc.contributor.authorStora, Jean Benjamin
dc.contributor.authorTeichmann, Mare
dc.contributor.authorTheorell, Tores
dc.contributor.authorVlerick, Peter
dc.contributor.authorWestman, Mina
dc.contributor.authorWiderszal-Bazyl, Maria
dc.contributor.authorWong, Paul
dc.contributor.authorYu, Shanfa
dc.identifier.citationSpector, P. E., Cooper, C. L., Sparks, K., Bernin, P., Bussing, A., Dewe, P., Lu, L., Miller, K., De Moraes, L. R., O'Driscoll, M. P., Pagon, M., Pitariu, H., Poelmans, S. A. Y., Radhakrishnan, P., Russinova, V., Salamatov, V., Salgado, J., Sanchez, J. I., Shima, S., Siu, O. L., Stora, J. B., Teichmann, M., Theorell, T., Vlerick, P., Westman, M., Widerszal-Bazyl, M., Wong, P. & Yu, S.(2001). An international study of the psychometric properties of the Hofstede values survey module 1994: A comparison of individual and country/province level results. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50(2), 269-281.en
dc.description.abstractHofstede's Values Survey Module has been the basis for much cross‐cultural and cross‐national research in the workplace, but little information about its psychometric properties has been available. This study provides internal consistency (coefficient alpha) statistics from samples representing 23 nations/provinces. Across both English and translated versions, internal consistencies tended to be poor, and in the majority of cases failed to achieve even a liberal criterion of 0.60. Even when data were aggregated by sample coefficient alphas were poor for all but long‐term orientation. At the participant level, long‐term orientation and individualism had marginal internal consistencies, whereas power distance, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance subscales had inadequate internal consistencies. A replication of Hofstede's ecological factor analysis failed to support the five subscales. It is suggested that the construct validity of these scales is suspect, and that they should be used with caution.en
dc.publisherBlackwell Publishing Ltden_NZ
dc.subjectHofstede's values survey moduleen
dc.titleAn international study of the psychometric properties of the Hofstede values survey module 1994: A comparison of individual and country/province level resultsen
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.relation.isPartOfApplied Psychology: An International Reviewen_NZ

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